Invented by a Chinese government official around 105 A.D., paper reached the European subcontinent only about one thousand years later via India and the Islamic part of the Iberian Peninsula. The Indian artist Zarina Hashmi, who goes by her first name only, has been exploring the myriad material possibilities of paper through physical manipulation like scratching, weaving and punctuating and through her multi-faceted printmaking practice. Zarina was born in Aligarh, India in 1937 when, after British colonials slashed a largely arbitrary line through the Indian Subcontinent, her family joined the millions of displaced persons in search of a new home. She went on to study math and architecture, wood-block printing in Japan and printmaking with S.W. Hayter at the legendary Aterlier-17 in Paris where she was exposed to concepts like minimalism and conceptualism. The trauma of displacement and the arbitrariness of borders has been her primary subject matter. Zarina’s work is spiritually related to Urdu poetry and materially to calligraphy for her absence of color. On hand-made paper the structure of maps and charts unfolds collage-like or is manipulated to look like skin – often covering jet-black ground derived from the Sumi inks she fell in love with when she lived in Japan. The work is perpetually see-sawing between the structured and the lyrical and gives a compassionate voice to the millions of displaced persons word-wide who are stripped of home, language and identity. At Luhring Augustine through December 22.